Analysis Of Rail Fastening System: Part1

rail fastening system Rail fastening system, also known as rail fasteners, is components that connect steel rails and railway sleepers. It plays an important role in ensuring track stability and reliability. At present, 90% of the under-track foundation of the Chinese railway’s main track is a concrete structure. With the development of passenger dedicated lines and heavy-duty transportation, the requirements for the performance of rail fasteners have been improved. At the same time, countries around the world use different standard rail fasteners, such as the German vossloh, the British Pandrol, and so on. As a professional railway fastener supplier, we will comprehensively analyze the current situation of rail fastening system and the main problems, explain the basic requirements of rail fastening system, and introduce the technical characteristics of rail fasteners in various countries. For the convenience, we will divide into two parts to introduce railway fasteners including Chinese standards and other international standard railway fastening system. Today we will study Chinese standard rail fasteners firstly.

Chinese standard rail Fastening System 

The rail fastening system mainly consist of rail clips, rail pad, tie plate, screw spike, plastic dowel, rail shoulder and etc. China’s rail fastening system mainly include type I, type II and type III. Type I and Type II fasteners are bolted with shoulders. During the use of rail fastening system, the I-type rail fastening system have small strength and safety reserves, relatively insufficient buckle pressure, and damage of rail clips. Type I rail fastening system is replaced by type II. The type II rail clip fastening system is widely used in the railway line now. Type II rail fasteners were developed from the Type I rail fasteners, except that the rail clips were redesigned with new materials, and the remaining components were common to Type I rail fasteners. The type III rail clip fastening system is boltless and non-shoulder fasteners and currently being laid in large numbers. However, the type III rail fastener basically does not have the function of adjusting the rail gauge and the height of the rail surface, and it is limited in use. At present, all types of concrete sleepers are required to be laid in the speed-increasing section. Because of the different fasteners, they are divided into III a and III b sleepers, III a concrete sleepers are equipped with type II rail fasteners, and III b concrete sleepers are used with type III rail fasteners. . Under the repeated load of the rolling stock, the basic line under the concrete track bed will be subjected to great impact and vibration. Due to the high rigidity of the concrete track bed, excessive load bending moment will cause damage to the under-rail foundation. For vibration absorption and reduction, an elastic cushion must be laid between the rail and the foundation. The elastic cushion can reasonably distribute the impact vibration energy to the various fasteners of the track, and the working condition of the rail fasteners can be improved. At the same time, the elastic cushion layer can make the track have electrical insulation properties on the track.

Common problems of rail fasteners

Insufficient fundamental research The complexity and randomness of the wheel-rail relationship determine the strict requirements on the track structure. The track structure consists of the steel rail and sub-rail foundations, and they are fastened by rail fastening system. Therefore, the performance of each component of the rail fastening system is closely related to the track structure. Chinese rail fasteners focus on the research of each component, but not a whole structure. For example, the fasteners of Germany, France, Britain and other countries are treated as a system, the performance of each component of the rail fastener is coordinated and matched, for adapting to the dynamic requirements of the wheel-rail. Unreasonable structure of rail fastening system The structure of rail fastening system should meet the requirements of the wheel-rail dynamics from the view of the track structure components. Each component of the rail fasteners should have a reasonable structure and accurate dimensions. The assembly should be compact, reasonable force. Taking the type III rail fastener currently designed in China as an example, the structure of the embedded part is thick, the section is abrupt, the stress is concentrated, the structure is obviously unreasonable, and the fixing quality of the embedded part is unreliable, which affects the assembly quality. The rail fasteners of the concrete sleeper are pre-buried by rail plastic sleeve. The results show that the nylon sleeve and rail bolt combination has a bad performance. Poor quality of product manufacturing The poor quality of the products is mainly acted as following aspects: First, the technical standards are low, the design ideas are backward, and the dimensional tolerances are too large. For example, the structure design of the III type rail fastener is unreasonable, and the pre-embedded material does not use the ductile iron in the original standard, and a large number of fasteners are loose and the buckle pressure is insufficient. Second, assembly and cooperation cannot meet the requirements of use, such as the embedded method of embedded parts affecting assembly accuracy. The third is to shoddy and counterfeit in the supply. Single variety of fasteners Different track structures use rail fasteners that match their performance. Different rail fastener systems should be used for the main track, the ballast track and the ballastless track, the track on the roadbed and the track on the bridge. However, the variety of Chinese standard rail fasteners is single and cannot meet the needs of different track structures.





Analysis Of Rail Fastening System: Part2

rail fastening system   The rail fastening system is selected by various countries around the world according to national conditions, tradition, real situation of railway, they are different and formed. We have writen the chinese standard rail fastening system before, today we  will analyze the international standard rail fastening system.


France was one of the first countries in the world to use elastic fasteners. In the 1950s, RN-type rail fasteners were used to use rail clip as a rail fastener. Later, with the development of high-speed railways, clip in the form of double arches was used as a rail fastener. This is the Nablus fastener. RN fasteners and Nablus fasteners are promoted in some countries in Africa and Southeast Asia. Japan is also a country that uses rail clip as a rail fastener.

Nabla fastening system


In the early 1960s, Japan introduced the French RN fasteners, and it was promoted and used in the Tokaido Shinkansen, called the 102-type rail fasteners. With invent of slab track, Japan has developed straight-type 4, straight type 5 and straight type8 fasteners for slab track, all of which use clips as the fasteners for rails.

When the elastic rail clip is pressed, the bending property of the material is mainly utilized, the processing is relatively simple, and the cost is often low. However, since the hole is processed to meet the bolt tightening requirement, stress concentration is likely to occur at the portion, and the maximum bending moment is precisely the maximum portion of the section weakening, so that damage is likely to occur, and the buckle pressure and elasticity of the fastener are insufficient. When the elastic clip fastener is working, both the bending deformation property and the torsional deformation property of the material are utilized, so the elasticity is generally better, and substantially no section is weakened, so the material utilization efficiency is high. The famous Pandrol fasteners and Vossl oh fasteners all adopt rail clips.


British Pandrol fasteners are the most famous and influential rail fasteners in the world. They are applied in dozens of countries and regions. All high-speed railways in Belgium, Spain, Italy, South Korea and the United States fully or partly use Pandrol fasteners. Pandrol fasteners are now also heavily used in high-speed railroads in Japan and France. Pandrol fasteners are non-shoulder, non-bolt fasteners, with advantages of high buckle pressure (not less than 11 kN) and good elasticity (elastic deformation not less than 12 mm), especially due to the elimination of the concrete shoulder, thus eliminating the possibility of rail gauge increase caused by the sliding of the rail cant under the action of the lateral force, so the ability to maintain the rail gauge is strong. In addition, the way of bolting is eliminated, which reduces the workload of rail fastener maintenance. Chinese standard type III rail fasteners are similar to e-clip Pandrol fasteners.

Due to the small adjust range of rail height and rail gauge of the e-clip fasteners, the range of use is affected. In response to these two problems, Pandrol developed Fast clip fasteners based on the advantages of the e-clip fasteners.

Fast clip fasteners are still no-shoulders, no bolts, and less maintenance fasteners. Fast clip consist of a bottom tie plate, ra yyil bolts and rail sleeves, gauge block, rail pad and rail clips. The bottom plate is fixed on the railway sleeper by an rail sleeve embedded in the sleeper and corresponding rail bolts, and the upper surface of the bottom plate is a structure for fastening the elastic clip fasteners, and is a self-locking fastening system. As long as the rail clip is installed in place on the bottom plate, the designed buckle pressure is reached. The elastic clip is similar to the ω shape, and the pressure of the single elastic clip is 12. 5 kN, which is installed perpendicular to the direction of the rail and hard to fall off. The rail plastic sleeve is an engineered “plastic/metal” composite bushing, which is embedded in the sleeper and is used for screwing the anchor bolt fastener together with the sleeper. The fastener is pre-installed on the sleeper at the factory. Simply push the pre-installed clips into the direction of the rails so that the clips are in place and easy to install. The fast clip fasteners can all be installed mechanically. The fastener adjusts the height of the rail by inserting the pad under the bottom plate, and the maximum height is 27 mm. The adjustment of rail gauge is to loosen the anchor bolt properly, then move the bottom plate laterally along the slot of the screw hole, and then tighten the bolt. The maximum adjustment is ± 12 mm. 

fast clips fasteners


The German high-speed railway uses Vossloh rail fasteners with shoulders and bolts. Vossl oh rail fasteners consist of five parts: rail clip, gauge blocks, rail bolts, rail plastic sleeves and elastic cushions. An elastic rail pad is placed between the rail and the sleeper bearing groove, and the lateral position of the rail is fixed by the gauge block. The elastic clip is pressed on the gauge block, and the elastic clip is of the SKL14 type of ω shape, which is bolted and embedded in the sleeper. The rail plastic sleeve is matched with the fastening elastic clip, and the gauge blockmaterial is engineering plastic, which not only maintains the rail gauge but also acts as insulation. The rail clip design has a buckle pressure of 11 kN, a spring range of 14 m, and a cushion pad static stiffness of 70 kN/mm. The way to adjust the height of the rail is to loosen the bolt, insert the height adjustment plate under the rail, and then tighten the bolt with a maximum height adjustment of 26 mm; the adjustment gauge is ± 10.

vosslho fastening system



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